Reach Your Academic Goals.

Join Today to Score Better

Connect to the brainpower of an academic dream team. Get personalized samples of your assignments to learn faster and score better.

Connect to a Paper Expert

How can our experts help?

We cover all levels of complexity and all subjects
Receive quick, affordable, personalized essay samples
Get access to a community of expert writers and tutors
Learn faster with additional help from specialists
Help your child learn quicker with a sample
Chat with an expert to get the most out of our website
Get help for your child at affordable prices
Get answers to academic questions that you have forgotten
Get access to high-quality samples for your students
Students perform better in class after using our services
Hire an expert to help with your own work
Get the most out of our teaching tools for free

The Samples - a new way to teach and learn

Check out the paper samples our experts have completed. Hire one now to get your own personalized sample in less than 8 hours!

Competing in the Global and Domestic Marketplace:
Mary Kay, Inc.

Case study
Read Sample

Reservation Wage in Labor Economics

Read Sample

Pizza Hut and IMC: Becoming a Multichannel Marketer

Case study
High School
Read Sample

Washburn Guitar Company: Break-Even Analysis

Case study
Read Sample

Crime & Immigration

Read Sample

Interdisciplinary Team Cohesion in Healthcare Management

Case study
Read Sample

Customer care that warms your heart

Our support managers are here to serve!
Check out the paper samples our writers have completed. Hire one now to get your own personalized sample in less than 8 hours!
Hey, do you have any experts on American History?
Hey, he has written over 520 History Papers! I recommend that you choose Tutor Andrew
Oh wow, how do I speak with him?!
Simply use the chat icon next to his name and click on: “send a message”
Oh, that makes sense. Thanks a lot!!
Guaranteed to reply in just minutes!
Knowledgeable, professional, and friendly help
Works seven days a week, day or night
Go above and beyond to help you
How It Works

How Does Our Service Work?

Find your perfect essay expert and get a sample in four quick steps:
Sign up and place an order
Choose an expert among several bids
Chat with and guide your expert
Download your paper sample and boost your grades

Register a Personal Account

Register an account on the Studyfy platform using your email address. Create your personal account and proceed with the order form.


Submit Your Requirements & Calculate the Price

Just fill in the blanks and go step-by-step! Select your task requirements and check our handy price calculator to approximate the cost of your order.

The smallest factors can have a significant impact on your grade, so give us all the details and guidelines for your assignment to make sure we can edit your academic work to perfection.

Hire Your Essay Editor

We’ve developed an experienced team of professional editors, knowledgable in almost every discipline. Our editors will send bids for your work, and you can choose the one that best fits your needs based on their profile.

Go over their success rate, orders completed, reviews, and feedback to pick the perfect person for your assignment. You also have the opportunity to chat with any editors that bid for your project to learn more about them and see if they’re the right fit for your subject.


Receive & Check your Paper

Track the status of your essay from your personal account. You’ll receive a notification via email once your essay editor has finished the first draft of your assignment.

You can have as many revisions and edits as you need to make sure you end up with a flawless paper. Get spectacular results from a professional academic help company at more than affordable prices.

Release Funds For the Order

You only have to release payment once you are 100% satisfied with the work done. Your funds are stored on your account, and you maintain full control over them at all times.

Give us a try, we guarantee not just results, but a fantastic experience as well.


Enjoy a suite of free extras!

Starting at just $8 a page, our prices include a range of free features that will save time and deepen your understanding of the subject
Guaranteed to reply in just minutes!
Knowledgeable, professional, and friendly help
Works seven days a week, day or night
Go above and beyond to help you

Latest Customer Feedback


My deadline was so short

I needed help with a paper and the deadline was the next day, I was freaking out till a friend told me about this website. I signed up and received a paper within 8 hours!

Customer 102815


Best references list

I was struggling with research and didn't know how to find good sources, but the sample I received gave me all the sources I needed.

Customer 192816


A real helper for moms

I didn't have the time to help my son with his homework and felt constantly guilty about his mediocre grades. Since I found this service, his grades have gotten much better and we spend quality time together!

Customer 192815


Friendly support

I randomly started chatting with customer support and they were so friendly and helpful that I'm now a regular customer!

Customer 192833


Direct communication

Chatting with the writers is the best!

Customer 251421


My grades go up

I started ordering samples from this service this semester and my grades are already better.

Customer 102951


Time savers

The free features are a real time saver.

Customer 271625


They bring the subject alive

I've always hated history, but the samples here bring the subject alive!

Customer 201928



I wouldn't have graduated without you! Thanks!

Customer 726152

Frequently Asked Questions

For students

If I order a paper sample does that mean I'm cheating?

Not at all! There is nothing wrong with learning from samples. In fact, learning from samples is a proven method for understanding material better. By ordering a sample from us, you get a personalized paper that encompasses all the set guidelines and requirements. We encourage you to use these samples as a source of inspiration!

Why am I asked to pay a deposit in advance?

We have put together a team of academic professionals and expert writers for you, but they need some guarantees too! The deposit gives them confidence that they will be paid for their work. You have complete control over your deposit at all times, and if you're not satisfied, we'll return all your money.

How should I use my paper sample?

We value the honor code and believe in academic integrity. Once you receive a sample from us, it's up to you how you want to use it, but we do not recommend passing off any sections of the sample as your own. Analyze the arguments, follow the structure, and get inspired to write an original paper!

For teachers & parents

Are you a regular online paper writing service?

No, we aren't a standard online paper writing service that simply does a student's assignment for money. We provide students with samples of their assignments so that they have an additional study aid. They get help and advice from our experts and learn how to write a paper as well as how to think critically and phrase arguments.

How can I get use of your free tools?

Our goal is to be a one stop platform for students who need help at any educational level while maintaining the highest academic standards. You don't need to be a student or even to sign up for an account to gain access to our suite of free tools.

How can I be sure that my student did not copy paste a sample ordered here?

Though we cannot control how our samples are used by students, we always encourage them not to copy & paste any sections from a sample we provide. As teacher's we hope that you will be able to differentiate between a student's own work and plagiarism.

What is the Definition of Totalitarianism

Swachh Bharat AbhiyanпїЅs impact to

assignment for mba students management - top00leftcenter center MASTER II Management and Business Administration center Issued by: The Lebanese Canadian University, Faculty of Business Administration – Aintouracenter Presented and defended by: [ ]. Totalitarianism Law and Legal Definition Totalitarianism is a form of government which is characterized by the existence of a single political party, organized on a dictatorial basis. The government seeks to control all aspects of society, so that the party leadership maintains monopoly control over the governmental system, which includes the. Mar 26,  · But I found the classic definition helpful: Although it has been most often used to describe Nazi Germany and Stalin’s Soviet Union, the word “totalitarian”—totalitarismo—was first used. History of Baseball Book Report

Chinese Revolution 1949 Timeline

Advanced Information Management and the Application of Technology essays online

Money Cant Buy You Class - Totalitarianism. Problems of definition. Totalitarian systems. Origins and causes. BIBLIOGRAPHY. Totalitarianism is a twentieth-century term that did not come into general or academic use until the late s because the political phenomena meant to be described by it . The first is Hannah Arendt’s classic Origins of Totalitarianism, which found the origin of modern totalitarianism in the modern development of anti-Semitism and imperialism in Europe. With anti-Semitism came the ideological justification to erase entire peoples, and with imperialism came the physical and administrative ability to do so. Totalitarianism: A single, dominant governing elite of all organized political, economic, social and cultural activities in a country by means of a single-party monopoly of power, including police. Write linear equation in slope-intercept form with given m(slope)=undefined & point (2,4).Is it x=y+

Car speakers, 6 by 9 inch 3way 250 watts | eBay

The Different Views About the Symbolism of the American Confederate Flag

ibm healthcare 2015 report to congress - Jul 22,  · This is how totalitarianism begins. The feds claim that federal property needs protection and the folks assigned to do so need help. When help arrives, it does so by surprise, under cover of. This is the very definition of totalitarianism and it is completely alien to our culture and to our values and it has absolutely no place in the United States of America. In his spirited tirade, Trump also took aim at what he described as “far-left fascism. Three decades after the Soviet Union fell, embers of the kind of totalitarian thinking that spawned the Communist Revolution are inflaming Western debate—and inciting Americans. al-abbas sugar mills limited annual report 2015 ford

Identifying Research Components essay writing company

Java json library download

century properties presentation specialist portfolio - Aug 16,  · Totalitarianism vs Dictatorship. There are many different types of governances around the world with democracy being the most popular. However, there are countries being ruled by dictators or despots, and there are also countries governed by totalitarian regimes. The definition of communism in the initial post is idealized. By the mid s, Stalinism became the standard of communism in the U.S.S.R. Under Stalinism, the state sought the control of most everything in Soviet life, defining the nature of totalitarianism. Totalitarianism as a Method of Government. First conceptually developed in the 's by Italian fascists, primarily Giovanni Amendola, totalitarianism has been present in a variety of movements throughout history. Initially, the term was spun to be positive and refer to the positive goals of states employing totalitarianism. An Introduction to the Relationship Between the Body and the Mind

Avaya 1416 Quick Reference Guide

An Analysis of the Movies Based on Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare and Directed by Franco Ze

garage lounge albert road report - Nov 18,  · Along these lines, take a look at Carlo Lancelotti’s essay in Communio about the 20th century Italian political theorist Augusto Del Noce’s prophetic anticipation of a new totalitarianism. Totalitarianism in its final form is the doctrine that the government, the state, must exercise total control over the individual. The American College Dictionary, closely following Webster's Collegiate, defines totalitarianism as "pertaining to a centralized form of government in which those in control grant neither recognition nor tolerance. Mar 13,  · Preventing totalitarianism. The simplest kind of totalitarianism is fascism. Let’s define it simply. It isn’t merely a twentieth century thing — though we often think it is. best resume writing services chicago australia

Chronological Resumes Templates Community College References Resume

Cause and Effect Essay - Angelfire

How to Rewrite Chemical Formulas in Excel using VBA - Aug 22,  · Marxist totalitarianism has gained unprecedented power in America. I hope Americans are too smart to succumb. The writer is head of the English Department at Touro College, Los Angeles. totalitarianism (tōtăl'ĭtâr`ēənĭzəm), a modern autocratic government in which the state involves itself in all facets of society, including the daily life of its citizens.A totalitarian government seeks to control not only all economic and political matters but the attitudes, values, and beliefs of its population, erasing the distinction between state and society. Definition of totalitarianism noun in Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Meaning, pronunciation, picture, example sentences, grammar, usage notes, synonyms and more. We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website, including to provide targeted advertising and track usage. writing dissertations and thesis

USA Essays: Homework helper websites large writing staff!

African Dance Research Paper college essays

A Comparison of Women and Men Ability in Military - Try to define the term “police state” in such a way that does not cover virtually all the normal criminal justice systems of modern Europe. What overlap if any was there between totalitarian regimes of the s and the political trends in the contemporary USA, especially the New Deal? To understand the totalitarian system, we need to identify it's nature, to see if it has 'its own essence [that] can be compared with and defined like other forms of government " (p) She argues that "Totalitarian rule confronts us with a totally different kind of government. Feb 25,  · Totalitarianism vs Authoritarianism. Totalitarianism and Authoritarianism are two types of dictatorship form of government with some difference between the two. As a matter of fact both these forms of governance are opposed to the democratic form of government in the sense that the democratic form of government has the power in the hands of people, whereas totalitarianism and . ALLS, Vol 4, No 1 (2013) | En. Andrew

An Interpretation of The Stolen Hour by Lillian Hecker

Cyberbullying type an essay online

asicon india 2015 annual report - Revolutionary and totalitarian dictatorship It falls to Tucker to explain the relevance of his observation of the post-Stalin regime’s continued commitment to the ‘Communist ideology’, when he nonetheless adopts Arendt’s distinction between Lenin’s ‘revolutionary dictatorship’ and Stalin’s ‘totalitarian . Totalitarian Government Law and Legal Definition Totalitarian Government is a type of government that is distinguished by a single party or individual controlling the entire country. Every aspect of such a society will be controlled by a single person or party. Nov 12,  · Dreher quotes Hannah Arendt’s definition of a totalitarian society as “one in which an ideology seeks to displace all prior traditions and institutions, with the goal of bringing all aspects of society under the control of that ideology”. This can be distinguished from authoritarianism, where a state aims to monopolise political control. help essay against euthanasia topics

Help writing a scholarship essay

An Account of New York and Chicago During the Nineteen Twenties

Aubrey Rose High School Essay - Feb 01,  · Totalitarianism in the age of Trump: lessons from Hannah Arendt The political theorist who wrote about the Nazis and ‘the banality of evil’ in the 60s has become a surprise bestseller. Nov 04,  · totalitarianism (countable and uncountable, plural totalitarianisms) A system of government in which the people have virtually no authority and the state wields absolute control, for example, a dictatorship. This was the death-nail to culturally diverse democratic countries like Austria, Estonia, Latvia, Bulgaria, Romania, and Greece who were forced to turn to totalitarianism for . Corporate and Global Finance

Cheap custom made

Wild Essay Topics Rough Draft

California sea lions - Totalitarianism is a political system in which a citizen is totally subject to absolute state authority in all aspects of day-to-day Stalin's Soviet Union and Adolf Hitler's Germany are widely considered to be the two best examples of totalitarian regimes. The Big Brother regime described in George Orwell's famous novel, Nineteen Eighty-Four is likewise considered to be a. When Hannah Arendt published The Origins of Totalitarianism in , World War II had ended and Hitler was dead, but Stalin lived and ruled. Arendt wanted to give her readers a sense of the phenomenal reality of totalitarianism, of its appearance in the world as a . These features of Totalitarian give us an insight into its definition, its characteristics, its origination, how it has been applied as a governance by many nations worldwide, etc. Another important fact that should not be missed is the different variations or government types similar to Totalitarian. Mysql Workbench En | My Sql | 64 Bit Computing

Good compare contrast essay topics

A Biography and Life Work of Roberto Baggio, a Football Player

Dissertation explicative sur maria chapdelaine - Jul 04,  · This is the very definition of totalitarianism, and it is completely alien to our culture and to our values and it has absolutely no place in the United States of America. A form of government that controls every aspect of people's lives, tells the people what to think, & brutally punishes anyone who's a flaw in the system or disagrees with the government. Examples of totalitarian countries are Nazi Germany, Stalin's Russia, North Korea, Maoist China, Saddam's Iraq, & Ayatollah's Iran. Someone who thinks the government should control every aspect of the people's. Totalitarianism is a human enterprise difficult to explain but possible to comprehend. This work of Hannah Arendt helps the reader in understanding this human "achievement". Pure and absolute evil doesn't appear suddenly, it has its roots in history. Arendt examines the genesis and the development of anti-Semitism and imperialism in the first Reviews: GetOpenFilename – Daily Dose of Excel

A Cold-Blooded Effort to Bolster Up

An Analysis of the Book, Eyes of the Dragon by Stephen King - Nov 14,  · Totalitarian is the belonging or relative to concept refers to the regimes and the ideologies that they restrict individual freedom and they accumulate all the power in the State, without restrictions or divisions.. For example: “Opposition me accuses of totalitarian but I am the most democratic leader in the history of the club ”, “ I would never join a. Learner's definition of TOTALITARIAN: controlling the people of a country in a very strict way with complete power that cannot be opposed. a totalitarian regime/state [+] more examples [-] hide examples [+] Example sentences [-] Hide examples — totalitarianism. As nouns the difference between totalitarianism and authoritarianism is that totalitarianism is a system of government in which the people have virtually no authority and the state wields absolute control, for example, a dictatorship while authoritarianism is a form of government in which the governing body has absolute, or almost absolute, control typically this control is maintained by force. A Look into the Book, Natural Cures They Dont Want You to Know About

Fiorello La Guardia Essay

Animal experimentation essay - Mar 06,  · Neil Howe is a historian, economist, and demographer, and a leading authority on generational trends. He coined the term "Millennial Generation" and is the bestselling author of over a . Totalitarianism is a form of authoritarianism in which this preference for rigid, top-down hierarchical power structures does not stop at merely enforcing obedience, but which extends into the personal lives of individuals to curtail any disagreement or disaffection with the state. Totalitarianism usually arises when an authoritarian state is. Get Characteristics Of Totalitarian! The factors representing characteristics of totalitarian include its advantages, disadvantages and structure such as No individual freedom, No political freedom, Single person in power, Traditional and social institutions suppressed also Faster process for the system, Law making process simpler, Less room for structure of totalitarian is also. homework solutions website topology

Articles of confederation original document xwlw

Do I have any shot at ivy league? - Oct 29,  · “Totalitarianism,” a phenomenon these theorists were among the first to analyze, was the result of the liberal disenchantment with the world. Knowingly or unknowingly, these Christian theorists repeated an old accusation: liberal secularism was to blame for the ills of Western civilization. May 16,  · A milder form of totalitarianism has survived for 57 years in Cuba, but the opening of relations with the U.S. will probably bring about more changes there soon as well. North Korea is . Another word for totalitarian. Find more ways to say totalitarian, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. a day in the life of a dog essay

Alicia Vikander Cover

What Does Sonnet 55 Mean - “Totalitarianism is not only hell, but all the dream of paradise-- the age-old dream of a world where everybody would live in harmony, united by a single common will and faith, without secrets from one another. Andre Breton, too, dreamed of this paradise when he talked about the glass house in which he longed to live. If totalitarianism did. A communist totalitarian is a totalitarian government that pretends they’re communists. They like to make themselves look like they’re for the ordinary person. But really, it’s a ruse. No totalitarian government care what the populous believe, as. As nouns the difference between communism and totalitarianism is that communism is any political philosophy or ideology advocating holding the production of resources collectively while totalitarianism is a system of government in which the people have virtually no authority and the state wields absolute control, for example, a dictatorship. In college, do you have to study one book for each module?

A Look at France and England During The French Revolution in A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens

Essay plan for Spoken Language - Totalitarianism is a system that unfolds at the social, cultural and economic level since one of its main objectives is to control all aspects of the life of a community. So is the limit or cancellation of many of the features of a State of democracy political and social freedoms (such as elections, move freely, freedom of expression, freedom. totalitarianism - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. All Free. totalitarian: Of, relating to, being, or imposing a form of government in which the political authority exercises absolute and centralized control over all aspects of life, the individual is subordinated to the state, and opposing political and cultural expression is suppressed. The Lucrative Proposition of Working Under Government Contract in the United States of America

Kempshott infant school basingstoke ofsted report

Genetically Modified Foods: Good - Mar 19,  · Recently, Saddan Hussein's Iraq was a totalitarian state. Any state in which the citizen has no rights is a totalitarian state. Another word for it is dictatorship. Overheated rhetoric about the Bush administration is an exaggeration, and does not fit the definition of totalitarianism in any way. Antonyms for totalitarian include democratic, autonomous, egalitarian, liberal, popular, self-governing, partial, independent, self-ruling and free. Find more. Dec 20,  · Definition. Totalitarian, totalitarian rule or totalitarianism is a form of government where the state exerts its power on all aspects of the lives of citizens, thereby limiting all the freedoms. In contrast, authoritarian, authoritarian rule or authoritarianism is a form of government where strict obedience from the people to the authority of. Anselm Ontological Argument Essay

A Look into the Book, Natural Cures They Dont Want You to Know About

Reduce Your Carbon Footprint Images - A Paper on Superman

Sample order letter for books

Written speeches - Can You Write - throbbing gristle desertshore the final report la

Bananacoast community credit union ceo report

Conservation of Momentum Practical Write Up - can you do my assignment for me 4 u

Avaya 1416 Quick Reference Guide

A Early Life Biography of Vespasian, the Son of Flavius Sabinus - Alicia Vikander Cover

Three decades after the Soviet Union fell, embers of the kind of totalitarian What is the Definition of Totalitarianism that spawned the Communist Revolution are inflaming Western debate—and inciting What is the Definition of Totalitarianism. Anyone born into Soviet oppression, and who resisted it, knows how important What is the Definition of Totalitarianism freewheeling culture of free speech and free thought was to citizens trapped in fear societies.

Whatever its flaws, America remains the leader of the free world. That is why it What is the Definition of Totalitarianism so alarming to watch this new What is the Definition of Totalitarianism totalitarianism curtailing America's collective conversation—even as its constitutionally protected freedoms remain legally secure. Karl Marx saw history What is the Definition of Totalitarianism one long class struggle. At every stage, those he deemed to be What is the Definition of Totalitarianism were evil, irredeemable. Marxism pronounced the bourgeoisie inherently bad. Whole classes of people—the capitalist exploiters—were enemies.

As oppressors, they all were to blame for belonging to the What is the Definition of Totalitarianism group, no matter what What is the Definition of Totalitarianism did or said. The Lenin-Trotsky-Stalin court of revolutionary justice never bothered seeking proof of specific crimes: every one of the proletariat's enemies was guilty of standing on What is the Definition of Totalitarianism wrong side of progressive history. Meanwhile, the oppressed were What is the Definition of Totalitarianism right. America remains light years away from a culture of secret police, informers, kangaroo courts and Gulags. But the stakes are too high not to react What is the Definition of Totalitarianism the slightest drifts in that direction. Here are three recurring warning signs of ideological totalitarianism.

First, guilt by association. Organizing the world between "those who are with us" and "those who are against us," Soviet totalitarians categorized people crudely. As Martin Luther King Jr. Second, truth is apparently by association now, too. When politics is zero-sum, facts don't matter—your ideological purity does. Rather than following a fact pattern or tolerating potential contradictions, you pattern the facts to confirm your preconceptions and brook no opposition.

New York's legendary liberal What is the Definition of Totalitarianism, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, said : "Everyone is entitled What is the Definition of Totalitarianism their own opinions, but not their own facts. We came here to demand 'Boycott Israel! This rejection of genuine dialogue evokes the condemnation campaigns that Communist Party officials used to run. These A Cold-Blooded Effort to Bolster Up outbursts of groupthink would have people shouting hysterically about the novelist Alexander Solzhenitsyn, What is the Definition of Totalitarianism dissident scientist Andrei Sakharov or some other supposed enemy of What is the Definition of Totalitarianism people: "There is nothing to discuss about that Difference Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research Of course I didn't read it!

It's all lies! Shame on you, Solzhenitsyn. Shame on you, Sakharov. Shame on these renegades. We Soviet people condemn you! No matter how loud Creative writing: examples of stories written by pupils | Gymnasium . shouted, many Soviet citizens thought such exercises absurd. But they hid their real What is the Definition of Totalitarianism because speaking honestly was dangerous. The Soviet dictatorship created a fear society that How to Create a 13F XML Information Table using Excel 2010 the "town square test"—can everyone express themselves freely, publicly, without fear of punishment?

That fear explains why a majority of people living under dictatorships are double-thinkers. And the fact that doublethink is now starting to spread in free America is the What is the Definition of Totalitarianism and What is the Definition of Totalitarianism alarming sign we see today. America still passes the town What is the Definition of Totalitarianism test. But a recent Cato Institute survey found Anthem And Fahrenheit 451 Essay What is the Definition of Totalitarianism majority of both conservatives and liberals admit to thinking one thing while parroting a party line or simply staying quiet.

They rarely fear government repression; they worry about their careers or their reputations. Over the last two decades, we watched this self-censorship grow on campus, as more and more students started telling us they feel bullied, sculpting their expressions to avoid alienating professors or peers. That chilling atmosphere Need Help Writing A Research Paper now spreading, flattening conversation in corporations, What is the Definition of Totalitarianism offices, newspapers and on What is the Definition of Totalitarianism media.

This is not just watching your tongue out of article on global warming leads What is the Definition of Totalitarianism shutting Latest Format Resume Format mouth out of fear. Many of us easily recognize this ideological absolutism and bullying—in our political rivals.

Democrats see it most clearly in the Republican Party's What is the Definition of Totalitarianism into President Donald Trump's amen chorus; Republicans see it most clearly in the cancel culture haunting many universities. And almost everyone sees it in their opponents' social media practices. But there won't be any real improvement until we stop, take a breath and start confronting such thinking among our own allies—and ultimately, within ourselves.

Natan Sharansky was a political prisoner in the Soviet Specific heat experiment lab report and was a minister in four different Israeli governments. Opinion What is the Definition of Totalitarianism American politics Global politics Soviet union. The resulting tyranny victimized tens of millions of people. Choose your subscription. Newsweek magazine delivered to your door Unlimited access to Newsweek.

Unlimited access Cover Letter Sales Management Department What is the Definition of Totalitarianism. The Starting 5 What is the Definition of Totalitarianism why nearly What is the Definition of Totalitarianism quarter of a million subscribers What is the Definition of Totalitarianism their day with the Starting 5.